World population is the total number of human beings currently living on the planet. As of August 2016, it was estimated at 7.4 billion. It is estimated to further increase by 11.2 billion in the year 2100. World population has experienced a continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine of 1315–17 and the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million. The growth, although has declined to 1.18% between 2010 -2015, the world population is still increasing exponentially.
Characteristics of World Population:
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume.
Life expectancy: It is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including sex.
Human Sex Ratio: The human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Fertility: Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population.
Birth Rate: It is the number of live births per thousand of population per year.
Death Rate: The ratio of deaths to the population of a particular area or during a particular period of time, usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year.
Data was extracted from different online sources for the following variables for geo-spatial analysis.
Data Source and Indicators: http://data.worldbank.org/
As data was extracted from different online sources, data transformations were done to combine different datasets into one dataset with the required variables. Mostly, the transformations were done in MS-Excel using Fuzzy Lookup. The countries with insignificant population densities were filtered out. The data for countries which was not available, was manually added to the dataset.
Population Growth: According to the results of the 2014, the world population reached 7.2 billion, implying that the world has added approximately one billion people in the span of the last twelve years. China (1.4 billion) and India (1.3 billion) are the two largest countries of the world, both with more than 1 billion people, representing 19% and 18% of the world’s population, respectively. 60% of the global population lives in Asia (4.4 billion), 16% in Africa (1.2 billion), 10% in Europe (738 million), 9% in Latin America and the Caribbean (634 million), and the remaining 5% in Northern America (358 million) and Oceania (39 million).
Gender Imbalance was represented by percentage of female population in the world.
Higher Gender Imbalance (Sex ratio>50): Asian and North African countries.
Low Gender Imbalance (Sex ratio<=50): There are many countries listed mainly countries in North America, Australia, and Asia.
Gender Balance :Few countries with sex ratio = 50 are as follows:-
- Africa-Kenya, Zambia, Congo, Cameroon, Mali, Tunisia
- Europe-Norway, Ireland
- Asia-Turkey, Vietnam
- South America-Peru, Ecuador, French Guinea
- North America-Honduras
Life Expectancy has increased over the years. It can be observed that developed nations such as United States of America and United Kingdom (greater than 78 years) have better life expectancies. While on the other hand, less developed or under developed countries like Namibia, Liberia have lower life expectancies. This could be attributed to the fact that developed countries offer better medical care, better nutrition, better environment and hence better immunity. Whereas, underdeveloped countries suffer from poor sanitation, poverty and poor quality of lifestyle.
Fertility of South Asian countries such as India, Afghanistan and Pakistan was quite high as compared to the rest of the world. Such countries also had a higher population growth rate. Thus, it won’t be long when India takes over China as the country with largest population.
The data of the world population since 1960 till 2015 was used to predict the future values for the same. It can be seen, that the world population will further increase in the fourth coming years, however at a lower growth rate.
Now that countries are identified based on the population, a study can be conducted to understand the factors such as economic, environmental and government policies that influence gender imbalance.
Support Docs: http://www.worldpopdata.org/insights http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2015/2015-world-population-data-sheet.aspx http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/theme/ageing/index.shtml http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/PopulationA geingAndDevelopment2015.pdf https://www.google.com.sg/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=population%20density https://www.google.com.sg/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=life+expectancy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertility https://www.google.com.sg/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=death+rate%27 https://www.google.com.sg/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=birth%20rate
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