Analytics And Intelligent Systems

NUS ISS AIS Practice Group

Estimating the Economic Health of Singapore for 2016 — March 18, 2017

Estimating the Economic Health of Singapore for 2016

Singapore is classified as one of the advanced economies of the world. It is currently the worlds no 2 investment friendly destination and considered as the gateway to Asia in terms of business opportunities and commodity trading. It is strategically well located for east west trading route and is one of the world’s busiest Business port. All of these factors have greatly contributed to the nation’s economic health.

In order to estimate the economic health of Singapore we adopted the GQM technique and have considered the following:

Goal :

To estimate the economic health of Singapore for the year 2016.


  1. What is the GDP growth rate? Where does it stand against comparable developed countries?
  2. Identify the sectors which are contributing the most and least to the GDP to find avenues of improvement.
  3. Compare inflation of Singapore against comparable developed countries.
  4. Identify the biggest trading partners and their trading trend.
  5. To what extent are the job opportunities affecting the economic health of the country?


  1. GDP Growth Trend with comparable countries
  2. Sector wise GDP
  3. CPI Trend with Comparable Countries
  4. Import and Export Volumes and Growth
  5. Unemployment Rate

The data for the dashboard was collected from the department of Statistics Singapore and International Monetary Fund.  Based on the KPIs mentioned above an exploratory analysis was done on 2 levels

To compare

  1. Singapore’s year on year performance
  2. Performance with respect to other advanced economies.

The dashboard visualization was done in Tableau.

Dashboard Observations:

GDP Growth Trend:

All the countries that we have considered have a positive GDP growth rate between 2-3 % except Japan.

GDP Growth- Sector wise:

For the year 2016, growth in Service Industry is a meagre 1 %. The Manufacturing Industry has however contributed the most to Singapore’s GDP with a growth rate of 3.6 %.

CPI Inflation Rate:

The CPI inflation rate has been negative for Singapore in the years 2015 & 2016 when compared to other countries although it was previously spiking till 2014 .  Excepting Singapore, all the countries  have a similar growth pattern.

Trade – Import and Export:

United States is the largest player for Singapore trade market. Singapore’s export to Japan is noticeably growing at 24.13 %


Unemployment rate lies between 3-6 % roughly for all the countries. When compared to other countries, Singapore has the lowest unemployment rate.


As an advanced economy, Singapore naturally has a limited scope for GDP growth. Global trend shows that countries classified alongside Singapore have also shown similar growth patterns with a dip in GDP growth in 2009 and a spike in 2010 which can be attributed to the Global financial crisis in 2008

Singapore, as characteristic of a developed country, is oriented towards a service industry driven economy. Growth in manufacturing industry relates to more demand for consumer goods and also opens up more employment opportunity. Hence, we are anticipating a decrease in the unemployment rate.

Singapore is largely dependent on the trading market. Any fluctuation in the trading market will directly impact Singapore’s economy.  As a country with limited resources Singapore is handicapped interms of its domestic export. Its advantage however lies in its transhipment potential to countries in southeast Asia.

The deflation in CPI post initial inflations suggests that the supply has overshot the demand. All other countries taken for comparison have a positive inflation which suggests higher demand. But despite a rather grim CPI stats, Singapore’s GDP growth is the second highest for 2016. These KPIs cumulatively indicate that Singapore’s economy is relatively healthy.

Data Visualization hence enables one to gain better insights on Singapore economy, by keeping track of its progress in interdependent metrics such as trade, GDP, and CPI.  It provides a holistic view of the economy and will enable us to act proactively to the volatile nature of global economic trends.

To view our Dashboard Click Here

Created By:

Abhinaya Murugesan [E0146975]

Allen Geoffrey Raj [E0146962]

Kavya Andakudi Kesavan [E0146814]

Preethi Jennifer Rajkumar [E0146754]

Saravanan Kalastha Sekar [E0146873]










Aging Problem of Singapore — March 17, 2017

Aging Problem of Singapore



The purpose to create this dashboard is to explore and monitor the aging process of Singapore. The dashboard has two parts. The upper part is about the current situation: Is Singapore experiencing aging problem now? What is the trend of aging process? The rest of the dashboard mainly focuses on two main themes: economy and health, because of our reading of report by the World Health Organization and many essays. The Singapore government can develop appropriate policies and regulations to deal with aging problems in time according to the dashboard.(The definition of elderly is people who are over 65)


Current situation:

  1. What is the distribution situation of elderly people in Singapore?

Geographical distribution data of elderly is shown on the map to help us learn the distribution of elderly from 2006 to 2015. Obviously, elder people gather in these districts: Tampines East,Bedok, Trafalgar, Aljunied and Hong Kah; and elder people are denser in the East than West, in the South than North. However, Trafalgar and Hong Kah are not as dense as in the past when time goes, and the nearby districts have become denser instead.

  1. How does age structure of Singapore change? How does the elderly support rate (ESR) change?

Demographic data from 2006 to 2015 is used to see the trend of aging process. The percentage of elder people has increased while the percentage of 0-4 year old infants has decreased, which means that Singapore is becoming an aging society. The elderly support rate represents the result of number of elder people divided by number of people between14-65. The ESR has decreased significantly, indicating the heavier burden of the aging society. Fewer young people need to support more elder people in the future. So Singapore government should pay more attention to the aging problem and take some action now.



  1. Are elderly living under less or more economy pressure?

Work participation rate data of different ages in Singapore is combined with the income data to learn the degree of pressure. After comparison, we find that though the elderly’s work participation is not as high as that of young people, it has been increasing evidently these years, indicating that more and more elder people start to work. The income of elderly is not optimal: most elderly’s salary maintain below 2000 dollar. All these reflect that the economy situation of the elderly has become worse than before, and that more and more elderly need to work, most of whom have low income.



  1. Has the health condition of the elderly improved or not?

After comparing the growth of hospital admissions of total people and elder people, it can be found that the health situation of elderly has not improved since the growth of total hospital admissions is smaller than that of elder people after 2014. It can be seen that the growth rate of people over 65 has increased rapidly since 2014, which surpassed the growth rate of total hospital admission. Though the life expectancy of the elderly is better than before, the medical need is the key factor to measure the health condition. Higher the hospital admission is, worse the health condition is. It is acceptable that growth rate of hospital admission rate of elderly and total maintain at a same level. Once hospital admission rate of elderly has changed evidently, the government should pay attention to the health condition change of elderly.


Link to Tableau Public: Aging Problem of Singapore

Submitted by :

Chen Weibin     A0163249B

He Shangui       A0163348B

Liu Yizhe            A0163191J

Zou Yumeng     A0163394Y


Analysis on Workplace Injuries —

Analysis on Workplace Injuries


The objective of this dashboard is to demonstrate different levels and types of injuries caused in the workplaces of Singapore.


Analysis on Workplace Injuries – Analytics And Intelligent Systems


  1. In which industry majority of injuries occur?

Majority of injuries occur in the Construction and Manufacturing industry consistently over the years but in the year 2016, the injuries pertaining to “Accommodation and Food Services” has also risen.

  1. With the current scenario in workplaces, which type of injury occurs more frequently?

The number of minor injuries (94.9%) greatly exceeds the number of major (4.5%) and fatal (0.5%).

  1. Is there a trend seen in the number of injuries caused in the industries through the years 2014-2016?

The fatal and major injuries are consistent through the years, while the number of minor injuries dropped in 2015 and increased drastically in 2016.

  1. What are the common types of minor injuries across different industries?

Injuries caused by slips, trips and falls are the maximum across industries.  Injuries caused by cuts or stabs by objects is more at the Accommodation and Food services industries, while workmen at Construction and Manufacturing industries are more affected by moving objects.

  1. Why has minor injury increased drastically from 2015 to 2016 while fatal and major injuries are consistent?

A good measure has been taken to avoid the fatal injuries yet minor injuries have not decreased. This could be because of the conversion of fatal injuries to minor injuries.


Final Analysis

We can clearly see that fatal and major injuries are very low and steps have also been taken to reduce this further, there is still a rise in the minor injuries. This may be because the fatal injuries have been converted to minor injuries.

Struck by moving/falling objects is one of the common cause of minor injury in Construction as well as Manufacturing industry, so to suggest a common solution for this, we could make use of Wireless sensors (heat and motion) on the objects which make an alert sound when it reaches within 50 m of any human being. This way the people working at the site will be aware of any moving objects in their vicinity and move out of harm.

The injuries may be minor, but if the injuries occur simultaneously to multiple people, it may affect the overall productivity of the company.


Tableau Public link:

Workplace Injuries in Singapore(2011-2016)

Submitted by:

Pankaj Mitra (A0163319E)

Deepthi Suresh (A0163328E)

Neeraja Lalitha Muralidharan (A0163327H)

Kriti Srivastasa (A0163206N)

Sindhu Rumesh Kumar (A0163342M)


Making Singapore a Clean & Green Nation —

Making Singapore a Clean & Green Nation


Business Objective:

The objective of this dashboard is to promote renewable energy in Singapore. With its history of rapid growth and expanding demand for energy, Singapore is very reliant on an efficient and modern electrical system. The reliable supply of energy at a competitive price, influences the ability of Singapore industry to compete internationally, which in turn has a direct impact on its economy. Through this dashboard, we will understand how the energy is being produced from conventional methods and how much of that energy can be compensated by using Renewable Energy, especially Solar Energy.

Below are few questions that have been answered through this dashboard.

1.What are the major sources of power generation in Singapore?

  • Singapore’s geographical location is such that it limits the opportunity of using various form of renewable energy such as Wind Energy, Tidal Energy. Singapore’s wind speed is too low to harness its potential. On the other hand tidal range is narrow due to the calm seas. Solar energy is only the potential source of renewable energy available to Singapore.
  • Considering the Non-Renewable Energy resources, Natural Gas (Methane) is the major fuel source for generation of electricity followed by coal and petrol.

2.What is the effect of Current Power generation on the environment?

Most of Singapore’s power generated (say., 85%) is from Methane (Non-Renewable Energy resource). This causes serious effect to the environment and the society by emission of hazardous gases. For each kWh in a grid, certain amount of Methane is emitted to the environment. These energy sources are a potential burden on the economy of the country. They also take a major toll on the country’s air pollution index. Usage of Non-renewable resources should be replaced with renewable sources of energy resources for better and green future.

3.What is the contribution of each region of Singapore towards solar energy production?

The Solar Energy production has increased over the years in nearly all the 5 regions of the country. The West region has shown a steep increase in the solar energy production compared to all the other regions. However, the North region doesn’t have any considerable increase in the solar energy production.

4. How much Solar energy potential does Singapore have?

Singapore is situated very near to the equator, thus the average sunshine received by Singapore compared to other countries is relatively high. A large part of Singapore is still available for installation of solar panels. On an average, a square meter of solar panel will produce 150 watts per hour. Singapore enjoys an average sunshine hour of 5.5 hrs. per day. By installing more solar panels, energy generation will increase exponentially and contribute to the Singapore’s growing demand for energy/power.

Estimated daily output in Watts per day = Peak sun shine hours per day x PV systems rated output (Watts) x 0.85*


5.What is the impact of Solar energy on power tariff?

The increase in Solar Energy Production over the years has considerably reflected in reduction of general power tariff per kWh. Solar energy generation is a one-time installation set-up which would last for 10 years with minimal maintenance. Thus, compared to the other form of energy generation, cost invested in solar energy generation is negligible.

Data Source

  • The datasets related to Singapore Energy Consumption and Production are obtained from the Energy Market Authority of Singapore

Data Preparation

  • Different datasets related to energy were obtained from EMA
  • The datasets with different units were pooled together to have the their relative units for comparison

Link to Tableau Public

Team Members

  • Aravind Somasundaram (A0163301X)
  • Mutharasan Anbarasan (A0163257A)
  • Raghavan Kalyanasundaram (A0163316L)
  • Ram Nagarajan (A0163247E)
  • Seshan Sridharan (A0148476R)
The Bubble Degree of Singapore’s HDB Resale Market —

The Bubble Degree of Singapore’s HDB Resale Market

The purpose of the dashboard is to define KPIs to measure the bubble degree of HDB resale market in Singapore. The dashboard covers the KPI from the following perspectives:


Q1. Price, trading volume and building age are three measurements in the first graph.

There are a few transaction records in the central area, though central area is considered as the most valuable places in Singapore. From centre to periphery, building age declines while trading volume increases. In addition, building age in periphery is much younger than that of the central area. We can deduce that Singapore government exploited new places to increase supply of houses because the demand keeps increasing. Even though it is far away from the centre, so many people still want to buy them. It signifies that resale HDB flats are still attractive for investors.

Q2. From 2013 to 2015, housing prices declined but volumes remained stable.

It means that people were less willing to buy HDB and the resale market became colder than before. Two policies, which were carried out in 2013, were highly related to the decline of prices. One is that additional buyer stamp duty was raised. Another is that new Singapore PR need to wait for 3 years before they are eligible to purchase resale HDB flats. In general, being stable is much better than having great changes in terms of housing property. Thus, we think the resale market is healthy because bubbles are not obvious now.

Q3. CPI is generally considered as an indicator to evaluate the inflation level and it is closely related to our daily life.

We can judge HDB resale market by making a comparison between CPI and growth rate. Prior to 2013, it is obvious that bubbles existed because growth rate was much higher than CPI. However, afterwards, it became better, we believe that current growth rate is reasonable. At least no significant bubbles.

Q4. We use a new measurement housing-price-to-income ratio to measure HDB resale market.

Based on international practice, the proper range of this ratio is between 3 and 6. If the ratio is higher than this, real estate bubble can be identified. When it comes to SG HDB resale market, this ratio remains around 4 during last 15 years.

During the global financial crisis period of 2008, rapid population increase, low interest rate, and high global liquidity contributed to the accelerated price increase of Singapore. However, from 2013, it declined, which means bubbles were forced out gradually.

Q5. The price-to-rent ratio is a well-established economic principle used for real estate valuation.

It is typically calculated by dividing the average list price by the average yearly rent price. At its most basic level, the price-to-rent ratio is a benchmark for understanding whether it is better to rent or buy a property. The ratio increased dramatically leading up to the 2008-2009 housing market crash. In retrospect, this was a red flag of a housing bubble. The cause of the rising price-to-rent ratio is not the increase of rental but the panic fall of housing price. In following years, the housing price gradually increased, but the rental market was relatively smooth and steady, that’s why the PR ratio fell. In summary, it indicates that Singapore HDB resale market still has potential because the rental yield is relatively high and PR ratio is rational.

Dashboard Screenshoot

Live Tableau Dashboard


Singapore Labor Statistics 2015 —

Singapore Labor Statistics 2015


The goal of making this dashboard is to study Singapore Labour Statistics and provide insights from the findings to Ministry of Manpower.

Following are the Questions which we are trying to explore through our dashboard :-

  1. Most attractive Industry segment of Singapore. Manpower demands in different industry sectors since 2000.

Singapore is a small country with total area of 719 Km2. Its Labour industry is divided into four major sectors Services, Construction, Manufacturing and Others. Due to its small size, there is no major scope of production which leads to a low trend in the job vacancies across Construction, Manufacturing and Other industries. The employee distribution in Singapore as per 2015 statistics is Service industry [72.9%] followed by Construction [13.7%], Manufacturing [12.7%] and Others [0.7%] which makes Service Industry as the most attractive employing industry. Singapore is the financial capital of Asia and one of the favourite tourist destination due to which Service industry has always been a prominent job market. But, it is not immune to economic unrests felt in other parts of the world. The journey of Singapore service industry has been nothing less than a roller coaster ride. The smart art given below explains the ups and downs of the Singapore Service industry since 2000: –


  1. SG world ranking in terms of Unemployment rate. Detailed Study of Trends in Service Industry.

As per 2015 statistics, Singapore has global Unemployment rate of 2.1% and Employment Rank of 14thout of 208 countries. There are lot of jobs in Finance, Hotel and F&B market segments which keep it growing and emerging as the major job provider. The major vacancies were created in Community, Social and Personal services while real Estate, FSI and Infocom had the least number of vacancies.

  1. To find out the most & least preferred industry to work with based on Progressive Workplace indicators.

Progressive workplace indicators [Salary, working hours and Injuries] tells us the working conditions of a market segment. The job vacancy rate in Finance Services and Insurance Sector is relatively low since the jobs gets filled quickly because of handsome salary, lower workplace injuries and lesser working hours than the majority, making this segment the most desirable for job seekers. In Transport Services, the workplace injuries are the highest across all segments and the factors like lower average monthly salary and long working hours make Transport services the least preferred segment amongst the job seekers.

Owing to implementation of constructive policies by Ministry of Manpower for promoting the employment in Transport services, it has the lowest job vacancy rate despite harsh working conditions. The policies include government funded skill training, wage support to reduce the burden on employers and encouraging students to undertake Transportation as career path. Hotel and F&B, Admin and Support have the lowest average monthly salary, relatively longer working hours and unsafe working environment which leads to lot of high job vacancy rate.

  1. To suggest preventive measures to MOM for those industries which come under least preferred places to work.

Ministry of Manpower could bring certain reforms and regulations in these segments to attract more employees. Rules such as setting Higher Overtime Wage per hour can help indirectly increase average monthly salary. With higher pay eventually overtime reduces and the average working hours will be shorter.  Concluding, the major reforms in Work safety and Pay can help increasing the job vacancies in different Service segments which will further help in boosting country’s GDP.

The dashboard has been published on Tableau Public and the link to the dashboard is as follows: –



Submitted by: –


Praveen Tiwari (A0163322R)

Prashant Jain (A0163380J)

Praman Shukla (A0163239A)

Vicky Li Meiyao (A0163379U)

Pooja Gupta (A0163281J)





Insights from Injury Statistics – A Dashboard for workplace safety in Singapore:

Singapore is a unique country, a developed nation yet ever-growing for industries like real estate, construction, manufacturing, mining, IT, finance. For a nation with a good growth rate as Singapore, workplace accidents and injuries gives friction to its wheels.  Workplace safety plays an important role in the smooth development of the country with higher efficiency.

One of the important indicators to understand the workplace safety & injuries scenario in a country is “occupational injury & death” statistics. Thus, the dashboard aims to provide various insights into the safety scenario of Singapore from its occupational injury and death statistics



To understand the workplace safety scenario in Singapore from its occupational injury data like Key safety indicators, incident type and industry wise effects of workplace injuries, a relative injury fatality standing against transport accidents and a global comparison of injury rates for the construction sector.

Questions and metrics:


Definition of Metrics for Key Safety Measures:

  • Workplace Injury Rate:    


  • Accident Frequency Rate: 


  • Accident Severity Rate:      


Dashboard summary and Design perspective:

The dashboard was designed to emphasize on the key safety measures over other historical and statistical data without undermining their capability to give insights.

In the above safety measure rates, WIR and AFR have swinging trends hovering about an average value, which shows that Singapore has been putting continuous efforts to keep the rates in check by enforcing the safety regulations properly in it’s all expansions. The third-rate which is the Accident Severity Rate (A.S.R) is seen to have a slightly decreasing trend which is a good sign in terms of the country’s overall progress.

In comparison to transport accidents, over the years 2011-2015, the number of workplace accidents counted to nearly one-fourth and this has been an almost consistent observation. Also, while the number of transport accidents are decreasing over years, the number of workplace accidents have shown a slight increasing trend.  And among the various industry sectors manufacturing, construction, transportation and service sectors contribute to the most number of deaths while the prime causes of death being falls, slips, trips, struck by moving or falling objects etc.

On a global comparison, Singapore fares well especially w.r.t its neighbours in the Asia-Pacific like Hong Kong, Macau etc. as well as many European states and only falling behind Australia in Workplace Injury Rate.


Data for the dashboard was collected from various sources like, Workplace Safety and health (WSH) council (Singapore), International Labour Organization (ILO) and used to inform the metrics.

Link to Tableau Public : Workplace safety in Singapore

Submitted by :

Arun Kumar Balasubramanian    (A0163264H)
Devi Vijayakumar                             (A0163403R)
Pawaskar Sharvina Dileep            (A0163302W)
Pulavarthi Raghu Aditya               (A0163260N)
Sambit Kumar Panigrahi              (A0163285B)

[ISS EBAC 04 – 2017]

Costly Singapore – Dashboard — March 16, 2017

Costly Singapore – Dashboard

Screen Shot 2017-03-17 at 8.21.03 PM.png

We created this dashboard with the aim of answering important questions about the rising cost of living in Singapore to understand the aspects which make it one of the most expensive cities to live in the world today. We will analyze this phenomenon and forecast the trend in the short-term. Key metrics will also be examined in further detail as well, in this dashboard. The questions which we will evaluate are as follows:

  1. Food prices have been increasing, but is it a considerable factor contributing to Singapore’s aggregate cost of living?

In order to determine if food prices will cause a large strain on Singaporeans’ income, we look at the proportion it has of the total monthly expenditure in 2015. However, we can see that housing rent has a much bigger slice of the pie at more than 40%.

  1. Healthcare costs have always been high, but is this due to a shortage of doctors in Singapore?

We examine the supply and demand of healthcare in the general sense – supply being the number of doctors we have per 1,000 residents and demand being the total resident population. The latter is definitely rising at a rate, that is quicker than our ‘supply’ of doctors. This might suggest that doctor’s fees might increase as well, to compensate for this shortfall.

  1. The housing market is becoming increasingly competitive, especially with Singapore’s perpetual issue of limited land space. What are some of the factors leading to this?

As Singapore’s land area has remained at around 700 square kilometers for the past decade, we are facing increasing housing prices due to a land crunch. This phenomenon can be evaluated in greater detail through the trend of the various housing indices over the years, such as HDB, private landed and private non-landed.

  1. How is our cost of living compared with other parts of the world, especially in Asia?

The cost of living is computed based on user inputs and price data consolidated from government sources, to generate the average expenses in a given city for a 4-person family. With New York City in the US kept as the benchmark (index = 100), we can see how Singapore ranks with it, as well as her other Asian neighbors and partners in the globe. 

  1. After analyzing the individual aspects of Singapore’s rising cost of living, how can we forecast this for the foreseeable future?

Looking at the housing and food price indices, general and healthcare CPI, they appear to be on the upward trend. As a result, the cost of living index will also maintain a similar trend for the next 1 to 2 years. We can perform a simple forecast for each of the components, to visualize this impact on Singaporeans.

Link to Dashboard on Tableau Public

Published by:

Sunil Prakash
Gaelan Gu
Ma Min
Wang Ruoshi
Yu Yue

[EBAC 04 – 2017]